Overview of the KnowRob upper ontology


  • Map of an environment
  • Point, a zero-dimensional thing with a location
  • Place a relevant place in the environment
  • Trajectory, e.g. of the arm or the robot base
  • SurfaceRegion, different sides like the front or the back of an object
  • EnduringThing-Localized, all tangible objects that can be assigned a location
    • EmbodiedAgent
    • PhysicalDevice, an object that serves as a tool in the widest sense
    • Connection-Physical for any kind of joint
    • HumanScaleObject
      • ConstructionArtifact for walls, ceiling, floor, doors, etc
      • FurniturePiece for tables, cupboards, chairs, etc
      • AnimalBodyPart: Hands, legs, fingers,…
      • FoodOrDrink: edible and drinkable stuff


  • TimeInterval (e.g. time points, date, time of the day)
  • Situation, e.g. a posture or a grasp
  • Event
    • SensoryEvent, e.g. the perception of an object
    • StateChangeEvent, e.g. heating, freezing, vaporization
    • Action → PurposefulAction
      • Perceiving (similar to SensoryEvent, but in the action context)
      • VoluntaryBodyMovement, e.g. Reaching or ReleasingGrasp (Movements that are not directly manipulating an object)
      • ActionOnObject (any kind of object interaction)
        • ControllingSomething: tap, electrical device, …
        • HoldingAnObject (different grasps, no movement involved)
        • Movement-Translation: picking up, putting down, or moving objects, walking around, …
        • RemovingSomething: cleaning activities
        • OpeningSomething: bottle, cupboard, drawer, …
        • ClosingSomething: bottle, cupboard, drawer, …


  • Units
  • Mathematical objects like coordinate systems, matrices, vectors etc